2017-02-03 00:58

奥克兰代写Essay 扮演一个公司的商业行为的决定性作用,进而影响其经营业绩,如定价权,产生超正常利润的能力。在寡头垄断市场(绿色,1987),企业往往表现在纯粹的独立行动和纯粹的勾结。然而,这在澳大利亚是违法的构成串通社区防止操纵行业价格和利润。因此,铁矿石企业根据自身的反应函数,自主最大化自身利润,进行经营决策。在这一范式,市场结构,必和必拓和力拓公司能够产生超额利润,由于这种寡头垄断产业结构的需求刚性和铁矿石的稀缺性。这种战略的缺点是,企业的决策可能会导致环境的外部性,损害资源的可持续利用。因此,寡头垄断企业的利润是以公共福利成本为代价的,需要政府干预。


In the Australian iron ore market, there are two major producers: BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto Ltd. (Iron Fact Sheet, n.d.) Like most of the resource-based industries, the iron ore production is blocked by high barriers of entry and controlled by a few sellers. Though some small businesses participate in the competition, the market forms an oligopoly structure. Under this concentrated industry structure, sellers usually provide homogeneous products, the demand of which is strong and rigid. (Mazzeo, 2002) In most circumstances, oligopoly occurs because of the high entry cost, such as the control right of natural resources and advanced technology. Therefore, firms controlling this industry enjoy super profits thanks to the imperfect market competition and the asymmetric information.
According to the structure-conduct-performance paradigm (diagram 1), the structural factors (like barriers of entry, distribution of firms, product differentiation) play a decisive role of a company’s business conduct and in turn influence its business performance, such as pricing power, abilities to generate supra-normal profits. (Green, 1987) In an oligopoly market, firms tend to behave between pure independent action and pure collusion. However, it is illegal in Australia to form a colluded community preventing them from manipulating the price and profit in the industry. Therefore, iron ore firms independently maximize their own profit and make business decisions based on its own reaction function. In this paradigm and market structure, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto Ltd are able to generate super profits due to the demand rigidness and rareness of iron ore in this oligopoly industry structure. The drawback of this strategy is that the business decisions may lead to environmental externality and damage the sustainable usage of the resource. As a result, the profit of oligopoly firms is made on the cost of public welfare and requires governmental interference.

  • 上一篇:没有了
  • 下一篇:没有了