2017-03-06 16:01

现实使然,顾名思义,一个坚持现实主义原则,为威斯特伐利亚和约后定义(1648),从而结束了三十年的德国战争。威斯特代表外交在新定义的概念的民族国家现代性的‑开始以中世纪式的政治目的。几个世纪以来,Westphalia市的现实主义理论,和马基雅维利王子(1513)之前,是欧洲外交政策原则的基础上构建了。在第二次世界大战前夕写的,E.H.Carr(1992:292)一书中写道,二十年危机(1939)的继续,甚至增加,国际关系中权力的意义,给他这样做的时候,现实的哲学的一个简明的定义。 在任何政治形势下,试图把权力视为决定性因素,纯粹是空想。想象一个建立在一个国家联盟之上的国际秩序,每个人都在努力捍卫和维护自己的利益,这简直是空想。”(2) 此外,现实主义强调国际法律和秩序的明显的不足,进一步提高公开的强大的国家在国际社会中较弱的成员国地位。一个庞大的军事资源状态因此总是待在一个不同的方式下的民族或国家,由于重视权力和权力的潜在用途,如唐纳利(2000:9)证明。


Realism dictates, as the name suggests, an adherence to the principles of realpolitik, as defined after the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which brought an end to the Thirty Years War in Germany. Westphalia represented the end of medieval type politics with regards to foreign affairs and the beginning of modernity within the newly defined concept of the nation‑state. For centuries, the realist theory promulgated by Westphalia, and Machiavelli’s Prince (1513) before it, was the foundation upon which European foreign policy principles were constructed. Writing on the eve of the Second World War, E.H.Carr (1992:292) wrote in his book, The Twenty Years Crisis (1939) of the continued, even increased, significance of power in international relations, offering as he did so, a concise definition of the realist philosophy.
“To attempt to ignore power as a decisive factor in every political situation is purely utopian. It is scarcely less utopian to imagine an international order built on a coalition of states, each striving to defend and assert its own interests.”[2]
Moreover, realists stress the discernible lack of international law and order, which further enhances the position of the overtly powerful states over the weaker members of the international community. A state with vast military resources is thus always treated in a different manner to an inferior nation or state, with due attention given to power and the potential usage of that power, as Donnelly (2000:9) attests.

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