psychology essay代写:八子系统
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psychology essay代写:八子系统

2017-02-10 03:42

psychology essay代写:有八子系统参与发展生产的婴儿步行(海瑞莎,1991)。这八个子系统(模式生成,软骨分化,姿势控制,视觉流的敏感性、张力控制、伸强度、身体约束和激励)描述需要什么或获得在运动活动的发展(海瑞莎,1991)。对运动技能的发展在孩子的重要性是至关重要的,有助于孩子的身体、认知和社会发展,并提供一种积极的生活方式的基础(lubans等人,2010)。 相比之下,亚当(1971)闭环理论表明,只有两个状态记忆影响技能的获得,被称为记忆痕迹和知觉的痕迹(施密特,1975)。记忆痕迹负责发起运动,选择方向和力量的运动,而感性跟踪是负责引导肢体到正确的位置,形成的反馈过去的经验(施密特,1975)。随着曝光和反馈的增加,感知轨迹变得更强,孩子更自信,能够进行运动(施密特,1975)。 施密特(1975)图式理论扩展了亚当斯(1987)理论,提出了两种结构的存在:广义运动规划和图式(舍伍德&李,2003)。据麦吉尔& Hall(1990),广义的运动程序的参数存储在一个电机的响应模式示意图的方式,将召回模式。召回的图式的主要功能是对电机的程序负责特定任务或技能加响应的限制,以及技能进行准确的可能性是召回的模式强度相关(Magill & Hall,1990)。这两种理论的核心是不断增加的反馈的重要性,但是亚当(1971)的理论是基于一个较小的范围内的技能,包括较少的快速反应.

psychology essay代写:八子系统

According to Thelen, there are eight subsystems involved in the production of the development of walking in the infant (Heriza, 1991). These eight subsystems (pattern generation, articular differentiation, postural control, visual flow sensitivity, tonus control, extensor strength, body constraints, and motivation) describe what is required or gained in the development of loco-motor activities (Heriza, 1991). The importance of the development of loco-motor skills in children is of paramount importance, contributing to children’s physical, cognitive and social development, and providing the foundations of an active lifestyle (Lubans et.al, 2010).
Contrastingly, Adam’s (1971) closed loop theory suggests that there are only two states of memory affecting skill acquisition, known as the memory trace and the perceptual trace (Schmidt, 1975). The memory trace is responsible for initiating movement, choosing the direction and strength of the movement, while the perceptual trace is responsible for guiding the limb to the correct location, formed by feedback of past experiences (Schmidt, 1975). With increased exposure and feedback, the perceptual trace gets stronger, and the child is more confident and able to perform the movement (Schmidt, 1975).
Schmidt’s (1975) schema theory expands Adams (1987) theory, proposing the existence of two constructs: the generalised motor program and the schema (Sherwood & Lee, 2003). According to Magill & Hall (1990), the parameters of the generalised motor program are stored in a schematic manner of the motor response schema, labelled the recall schema. The major function of the recall schema is to add response restrictions to the motor program responsible for the specific task or skill, and the likelihood of the skill being performed accurately is related to the strength of the recall schema (Magill & Hall, 1990). Central to both theories is the importance of continual increased feedback, however Adam’s (1971) theory is based on a smaller range of skills, including less rapid responses
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