西雅图代写Essay 艺术和科学
ASSIGNMENT代写

西雅图代写Essay 艺术和科学

2016-12-27 14:04

然而,随着管理可能被视为发展的艺术和科学,不同的概念和理论的出现,部分原因是企业组织运作的环境持续经历了不同的变化,由于这种变化管理理论家和实践者开发不同的理论和实践,本质上改变先前的意义广泛利用概念(Bibikova,2001)。民族文化是一个这样的概念,在1990年代被广泛利用在世纪之交的然而,这项研究已经失去了它的意义是不同的批评提出理论,反过来又导致了关于文化发展的新概念(Chow et al .,1999)。

世界不同地区的个体差异和不同组织中取得了民族文化的理论依据。这是由于这样的事实,所有的个人在一个特定的国家可能不感兴趣相同的因素;有个体差异(主编,2002)。例如,当中国人被视为高集体主义和低个人主义民族文化的基础上,但这将是相当刻板印象而不是一个事实将会有成千上万的中国人,尤其是那些在国外接受教育,会更倾向于个人主义,而不是集体主义。在这方面将决定整个组织基于民族文化理论产生的结果,将与现实无关(罗宾逊,1983)。

西雅图代写Essay 艺术和科学

However, as management may be regarded as evolving art and science where different concepts and theories emerged with the passage, partly because the environment in which business organization operate consistently experienced different changes and due to such changes management theorists and practitioners develop different theories and practices that essentially change the significance of the previously widely utilized concept (Bibikova, 2001). National culture is one such concept, that has been extensively utilized throughout 1990s and at the turn of the century however, the study has been losing its significance as different criticism has been raised on the theory that in turn has led to the development of new concepts regarding the culture (Chow et al., 1999).
The individual differences in different parts of the world and within different organization have made the theories of national culture as baseless. This is due to the fact that all the individuals within a particular country may not be interested in the same factor; there are individual differences (McSweeney, 2002). For example, as Chinese people are regarded as high collectivism and low individualism on the basis of national culture, however this will be rather a stereotype rather than a fact as there will be thousands of Chinese people, particularly those educated in foreign countries that will be more inclined towards the individualism rather than collectivism. In this regard basing the decisions across the organization on the national culture theory will produce results that will be having nothing to do with the reality (Robinson, 1983).