英国谢菲尔德代写:维果斯基
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英国谢菲尔德代写:维果斯基

2018-07-15 20:36

维果斯基认为,与他人的互动对于孩子的心智成熟和个性发展至关重要。他进一步指出,这一成就取决于与这些人的互动,在孩子的环境中,他们比孩子更有能力和更先进。交互过程,通过孩子和其他孩子之间的讨论和争论,成为在孩子个人层面上发生的过程的基础(福克纳和伍德海德,1999)。这些概念构成了维果斯基所称的“最近发展区”(ZPD)的基础。Vygotsky(1978)指出,人们普遍认为,学习和指导应该在某种程度上与孩子的发展水平相匹配。例如,阅读、写作和算术的教学传统上是在特定的年龄阶段开始的。然而,维果斯基认为,“如果我们想要发现发展过程与学习能力的实际关系,就不应该仅仅局限于确定发展水平”(福克纳和伍德海德,1999a, p.11)。相反,他建议我们必须考虑至少两个发展水平。维果茨基承认存在实际的发展水平,即儿童智力功能的总和,这是通过儿童在一系列测试或任务中不同难度下的表现来决定的。然而,他认为,通过这样的测试,我们倾向于根据孩子自己能做的事情来判断孩子的智力水平。如果给孩子提出了引导性的问题,或者帮助他们与其他孩子合作解决问题,从而可能只是错过了问题的独立解决方案,这就不能作为他或她智力发展的证据(Vygotsky,1978)。我们已经失败了,然后,维果茨基认为,要意识到孩子们在别人的帮助下能做的事情,甚至比他们自己能做的更能说明他们的心智发展。
英国谢菲尔德代写:维果斯基
Vygotsky, then, argued that interaction with others is crucial for the child's achievement of mental maturity and individuality.  He suggested further that this achievement depends upon interactions with those people, within the child's environment, who are more capable and advanced than the child.  Processes of interaction, through discussion and argument between the child and these others, become the basis for processes which take place within the child at an individual level (Faulkner and Woodhead, 1999).  These notions form the basis of what Vygotsky has termed the ‘zone of proximal development' (ZPD).  Vygotsky (1978) points out that it has been commonly understood that learning, and instruction, should be matched in some way to the child's developmental level.  The teaching of reading, writing and arithmetic, for example, has been traditionally initiated at a specific age level. However, according to Vygotsky, we should not “limit ourselves merely to determining developmental levels if we wish to discover the actual relations of the developmental process to learning capabilities” (Faulkner and Woodhead, 1999a, p.11).  Instead, he suggests that we must take account of at least two developmental levels. Vygotsky acknowledged the existence of the actual developmental level which is the summation of a child's mental functions, as determined through the child's performance on a battery of tests or tasks at varying degrees of difficulty.  He argues, however, that, through testing in this way, we tend to judge the level of the child's mental abilities according to those things that children can do on their own.  If the child is offered leading questions or is helped towards a solution in collaboration with other children, thereby perhaps just missing an independent solution to the problem, this is not regarded as evidence for his or her mental development (Vygotsky,1978).  We have failed, then, according to Vygotsky, to recognise that what children can do with the assistance of others could be even more indicative of their mental development than what they can do on their own.