2017-03-09 14:36

亨廷顿认为共识政治精英是一个成功的民主转型的重要并提供指导方针将在独裁政权和反对派团体被改革者。他建议,对于一个政权内的改革者来说,在政府和军队中争取民主的支持是很重要的,要用既定的程序来做出改变,同时对保守党做出让步。他还认为,威权政体走向民主需要拓宽他们的选区包括亲民主反对派团体也对“鼓励负责任的发展,温和的反对党,其中关键的社会团体(包括军事)将接受一个合理的、非威胁性的替代政府”(P142亨廷顿1997)。 无论是政府和反对派democratisers,他认为他们必须坚持与志同道合的政治精英达成共识是唯一的选择–保守党政府在反对自由基会产生另一种具有广泛基础的支持。写作的“谈判和妥协的政治精英之间在民主化过程的心”(P165亨廷顿1997)他认为,如果某种共识是所有类型转换的基本过程。这是真的–在变换有专制政权和反对这一变化是在它的方式之间的默契,在transplacements这样的共识是中央为组内积极看待政府和反对派争取民主变革和置换有共识是在反对派一旦政府被推翻了发现重要的要求。


Huntington argues convincingly that consensus amongst political elites is vital to a successful democratic transition and offers guidelines to would be reformers within both authoritarian regimes and opposition groups. He suggests that for reformers within a regime it is important to try and place supported of democracy within the government and military, to use established procedures to make change whilst making concessions to conservatives. He also suggests that authoritarian regimes moving towards democracy need to broaden their constituency to include pro-democracy opposition groups and also to “encourage development of a responsible, moderate opposition party, which the key groups in society (including the military) will accept as a plausible, non-threatening alternative government” (p142 Huntington 1997).
For democratisers both in government and in opposition, he argues that they have to insist that reaching consensus with likeminded political elites is the only alternative – conservatives within government of radicals in opposition would not be able to produce an alternative that enjoys broad based support.. Writing that “negotiations and compromise amongst political elites were at the heart of the democratisation processes” (p165 Huntington 1997) he argues that consensus if some sort is essential in all types of transition processes. This is true – within transformations there is an implicit understanding between the authoritarian regime and opposition that a change is on its way, in transplacements such consensus is central as groups within government and opposition actively look to secure a democratic change and in replacement there is an important requirement for consensus to be found amongst opposition groups once the government has been overthrown.