洛杉矶代写Essay 国际化过程
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洛杉矶代写Essay 国际化过程

2016-12-26 12:31

第二个理论,可以用来解释国际化过程由宝洁是弗农国际产品生命周期理论(弗农,1966)。作者指出,大部分的创新发生在宝洁在国内,和这种创新的高速率背后的主要原因,该组织一直在国内享受可以归因于劳动力成本的上升,构成了组织的总成本的主要部分。根据这一理论不同的产品,宝洁市场在世界的不同部分可以分为三个不同的类别与新产品,成熟产品和标准化产品(Ctoera &格雷厄姆,2008)。第一类,新产品包括所有那些由宝洁产品,被认为是主要的创新,和在大多数条件宝洁限制此类产品的分布的边界时美国和产品分布全国各地,出口产品的开始。例如,克里斯蒂娜·阿奎莱拉香水范围提供的组织可以被视为新产品目前的分布局限于国家。国际产品生命周期的产品如图1所示。在第二阶段时,不同的竞争对手开始提供同样的产品,例如宝洁不同品牌的清洁剂,外国公司,例如宝洁和联合利华有胜过产品停止放映的需求进一步增长,这样的阶段称为成熟阶段(Grimwade,2000)。这里的重大关切策略师宝洁将设计不同的削减成本措施,解决这个问题可以发现在转移组织的生产能力在国外。由于这个原因,宝洁现在其生产设施转移到不同的国家包括沙特阿拉伯、菲律宾、波多黎各、中国和墨西哥。背后的主要原因是生产工厂转移到国外,利用这些国家的低成本劳动力优势(Rugman &布鲁尔,2001)。

洛杉矶代写Essay 国际化过程

The second theory that could be used to explain the internationalization process undertaken by P&G is Vernon's international Product Life Cycle Theory (Vernon, 1966). The writer has pointed out that most of the innovation that has been taking place across the P&G are in its home country, and the primary reason behind such the high rate of innovation that the organization has been enjoying in its home country could be attributed to the rising cost of labor that constitute the major portion of the total cost of the organization. According to this theory different products that P&G markets in different parts of the world could be classified into three distinct categories vis-à-vis new products, maturing products and standardized products (Ctoera & Graham, 2008). The first category, new product include all those offerings by P&G that are considered major innovation, and in most of the conditions P&G restrict the distribution of such products to the borders of the US and when the products are thoroughly distributed across the country, exports of the product get started. For example, Christina Aguilera Perfumes range offered by the organization could be considered as new products whose distributions are currently limited to the country. The international product lifecycle for such products has been depicted in Figure 1.
 In the second stage when the different competitors starts offering the same products, for example different brands of detergent marketed by P&G, where the foreign firms, for example Unilever are having an edge over P&G and the demand for the product stop showing further growth, such stage is termed as maturity stage (Grimwade, 2000). Over here the major concerns of the strategists at P&G will be devised different cost cutting measures and the solution to the problem could be finding out in shifting the production capabilities of the organization in foreign country. Due to this reason, P&G has now shifted its production facilities to different foreign countries including Saudi Arabia, Philippine, Puerto Rico, China, and Mexico. The major reason behind shifting the production plants to foreign countries is to capitalize the low cost labor advantage of these countries (Rugman & Brewer, 2001).